History &/ or mystery

The history of beads is fascinating, like a novel, full of secrets and unexpected turns.
 The legend tells of the origin of glass making, "One day, in very ancient times, Phoenician merchants brought to the Mediterranean produced goods in Africa, natural soda. At night they landed on the shore and began to cook their own food. For lack of hand stones surrounded the fire in big chunks of soda. In the morning, raking the ashes, the merchants have found a wonderful bar, which was hard as a stone, fire burned in the sun and was clean and transparent as water. It was glass. "
Thus, nearly 6000 years ago there was glass-and there were beads of different shapes and sizes. With improved manufacturing techniques, over time, the beads were becoming smaller and smaller. So there was a bead - small round or polyhedral, slightly flattened beads with holes for threading yarn. Its name comes from a "fake pearls", is made in Egypt from an opaque (deaf or past) glass, which is called in Arabic  "busra" or "buser".

Roman Empire. From Ancient Egypt and Syria-the production of glass, seed beads and bead spread in the Roman Empire, where 1st BC Alexandria - a city, laid by Alexander the Great on. south-eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the west of the Nile Delta, was invented a way to blowing the various items with thatch or metal tube.With the blowing method has changed and the process of making beads and seed beads. They were made not only from the thread, and a hollow glass tubes, darts, which the master glassblower blew out a drop of molten glass by a tube-Ponty. Getting a glass tube with constant diameter, length, and the required thickness required from the master of great skill, dexterity and excellent eye estimation.Then the thin glass tubes colored cut guillotine shears into small pieces on the sieve sift them from the debris and was treated in a rotating drum sander with a mixture of moist crushed coal with lime or fire clay.After filling the holes with a mixture of dried beads were mixed with small amounts of sand and heated to a cherry-red heat in a slowly rotating iron drums. In this case the softened glass rings rounded, smoothed bumps, the rotation did not allow them to flatten and powder mixture - swim holes. After cooling, the beads were washed, dried, and with polishing powder returned it shine, lost in the heat.In this way, produced and glass, which in contrast to the bead is a glass tube segments 3 mm in length and more.

Venice - center bead production. At the beginning of our era glass making appeared in Rome and other cities in Italy, Greece, Gaul - the current territory of France, Spain, Portugal and Germany. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the split in 395 AD. OE. to West, led by Rome, and Eastern called Byzantium, Constantinople, headed by the center of glass making in the end of V. transferred to the East - in Byzantium. But much prosperity reaches glass making in Venice, where many moved to the Greek and Byzantine masters. In the X-XII centuries. manufactured products are the simplest domestic purposes and beads, but after the fall of Byzantium in the XIII century. glass industry in Venice enters a period of intense development. The flourishing art of Venetian glass makers refers to the XV-XVII centuries. And in the XVIII century. a period of decline due to competition with other European countries.
For many centuries, the Venetian Republic is strictly guarded secrets of glass making. The laws issued by the supreme organ of the Republic by the Senate, promised a master glass makers not only an exceptional privilege, but also death for divulging the secrets of glass making.
In 1221 a decree was issued to postpone all major. Glass workshops, the purpose of sanitation and fire safety measures, from the city on the island of Murano, located in the Adriatic sea, 2 km from Venice. Since 1275 under threat of confiscation of prohibited export of raw materials from Venice to prevent the possibility of establishing its structure. Since the beginning of the XIV century. Every citizen of the republic, which became the glass makers, reckoned to the privileged strata of society. And in 1316 a decree was issued in which the daughters of master glass makers were allowed to marry patricians and the patricians. In the XV century. inhabitants of the island of Murano have its own administration, his court and his coin. In 1445, the island was granted the right to maintain its ambassador in Venice.

перчатки императора Фридерика II, рубины, сапфиры, бисер, вышивка золотом, 1220 год, Сицилия
Gloves of the Emperor Frederick II. Rubies, sapphires, pearls, embroidery in gold. 1220, Sicily

But despite the special privileges given to glass makers, from the end of the XIII century. in many Italian cities (Alter, Padua, Ferrara, Ravenna and others) have glass workshops by Venetian masters - defectors. In the XV century. these workshops appear in Germany and France. To maintain a monopoly in 1490 the Senate of the Republic gives the production of glass under the protection of the Council of Ten. Published a decree on treason and escaped punishment of masters. It required the return of glass masters, transferred the secrets of his skill in another country. If disobeying his relatives and friends imprisoned, but if Glazier continued to persist, and sent murderers, after his death  relatives were released. This brutally murdered by master glass makers continued until the XVIII century.
Venice for centuries was the only center of bead production. It is supplied with beads, East and West, where he was exchanged for gold, spices, silk, the peoples of Africa, it was used as a bargaining chip. A huge selling beads went to Europe, where there were stores of beads and bead fairs were held. Especially prized are very small (0.5 mm in diameter) and shiny beads. Widely used in needlework brocade beads, polished inside, silver-and gold-plated.
After the discovery of America and to establish a sea route to India to replace the glass workshops come to glass factories, built in XVI-XVII centuries. in Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, England and France. But Venice is still the main supplier of beads in America, India, Oceania, Europe and Asia.

Germany. At the end of the XVIII century. began making beads and beaded in Germany. First of Fihtelgebirge began to make beads and beads massive varieties of opaque glass and porcelain. They are exported to Russia, Asia and Africa. At the beginning of the XVIII century. Thuringia was founded in the production of light blown beads of glass, which eventually turned into a production of Christmas tree decorations. Here were produced and cultured pearls from glass by a special method of processing fish scales - bleak. Polished beads in Bohemia (Czech Republic), where there has long been the production of glass.

Czech glass making. As confirmed by the archaeological excavations and written sources, the beginning of Czech glass making refers to the middle ages.Technique of glass infiltrated here from neighboring countries, but soon learned to cook in Czech glass, which in its purity, clarity, brilliance and hardness superior to all previously known glassware. The first fire in the glass furnace caught fire in 1376 in the village Sklenarzhitsa, not far from Jablonec. In 1548 in the town Msheno and Nisou founded the first glass factory in 1760 in Jablonec and Nisou arrived first foreign merchants.Unlike the Venetian glass-melting, which is processed in a heated state, Czech glass refractory. Bohemian glass making technology to create his glass, of which introduced instead of soda, and secrets of which comply strictly with the Venetians, wood ash - potash. Hence the name glass timber. It is harder, easier to fabricate, cut and grinding. The German monk Theophilus, in his famous "Treatise on different crafts," wrote that in the X-XI centuries. German glass-brewed glass of two parts, beech ash and one part well-washed sand, and in the XII century. used the ashes of fern. Especially popular Czech glass enjoyed at the end of XVII - beginning of XVIII century. Along with the major products are manufactured beads, synthetic stones for embroidery, crystal and glass and glass biser.
Covered with colored enamel, faceted Bohemian glass beads was different from the round Venetian play of light and beauty. Greatest prosperity bead production was reached in the first quarter of the XIX century. When the competition thanks to a fine Venetian and Czech beads reached a very wide variety and size, and the rich selection of colors and shades.

Modern methods of making beads. In the second half of XIX century. Machines were invented for making beads, making it significantly reduced cost. In place of vertical discs for cutting glass tubes in 1890 came blanking press as the guillotine, which made it possible to handle simultaneously a big bunch of tubes. This has contributed to the spread of the Bohemian beads in many countries. But gradually, due to the decline of all kinds of needlework, prevailed in many countries for several centuries, and decreases the production of beads. Disappear smaller classes reduce the number of colors, beads becomes more coarse.

Metal Beads. Homeland beads of gold, silver and other metals is the stage of Paris, but his polished in Germany. Later, massive metal and glass beads stamped and covered with amalgam or molten tin for silver beads, and gold received by immersing beads in a weak solution of iron sulphate and a weak solution of chloride of gold. Metal beads used much less frequently.

Beads in Russia
Has long been known glass making and in Russia, as evidenced by the excavation of ancient burial mounds and settlements, as well as written sources. According to academician Kachalov, "The art of the finest lace from copper, bronze, silver and gold started in the Dnepr very long time, and archaeologists trace its development from the early centuries of our era. Gradually improving, it has reached an extremely high technical and artistic level of Kievskaya Russ. Jewelers were known to the Ancient secrets of colored enamels, which are transparent to a certain category of low-melting glass or muted. "
икона, вышивка бисером, 1800 год, Россия
Icon. Beads. Embroidery. 1800, Russia
The huge expanse of former Kiev state stretching from the Black Sea to Lake Ladoga and the Carpathians to the upper reaches of the Volga, everywhere on the site, the burial mounds and archaeologists find a lot of glass beads, bracelets, rings, fragments of broken pottery. Recently, in the Sumy region in the tombs of III-IV centuries. found the coral, carnelian and glass beads. The remains of glass-shops with broken horns, shards of crucibles, covered with multicolored melts, fragments of thin-walled vessels of glass, enamels, multi-colored pieces of smalt found during the excavations indicate that our ancestors knew the glass, not only through trade with the countries of East Asia and Byzantium .
Already in the IX. in Kiev there were small workshops for the manufacture of glassware, household items and jewelry, mosaics and colored smalt, enamels. Later glass making spread from Kiev to Chernigov, in Vladimir, in Ryazan, Galich, Polotsk and other towns.
If during the excavations of burial mounds VIII-XI centuries meet deaf glassware from colored glass, similar to the metal, sometimes painted with enamel paints in the form of simple geometric patterns, in the XII century. used for the manufacture of translucent glass in various colors. Glass beads were the most diverse in size, shape, colors and artistic treatment. In color they were green, blue, yellow, purple, black, silver and gilt, the shape - round, cylindrical, helical barrels and biconical or in the form of two truncated cones, folded their broad bases. Shimmering in the sun like a rainbow, uttering melodious sound of the motion, these ornaments made even more elegant women's dress and colorful.Development of glass making in Russia for a long time was interrupted by the Tatar-Mongol invasion. Only in the XVI century. the revival of glass making in small rural workshops, Gutach in the west and south-west, in Ukraine. Items Gutnov glass - a simple blown glassware and amusement as the vessels of animals and birds, painted in oils and decorated with stucco ornaments - were exported to many cities in Russia and Turkey. In the early XVII century. In 1635, joined the first Russian glass factory in the village Dukhanina, near Moscow, where worked and Ukrainian master Gutnick.In 1668, built the second. Izmailovo, a plant belonging to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. It produced a dining room and pharmaceutical ware, candle holders and a variety of "funny" (curly) items. Glass produced as a colorless or colored, transparent, and muffled, as well as crystal. It worked, German, Russian and Venetian masters.
Peter I the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725) ruled Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother, Ivan V. He carried out a policy of modernization and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into a 5 million mi2 (12 million km2) Russian Empire, a major European power.
Much attention is the development of glass in Russia Delia gave Peter I. He destroyed the duties on glass products, attracted to the preparation of Russian masters of foreign glass makers, sending Russian children abroad to study glass case and, in particular, the art of making beads. At his command in 1705 on Sparrow Hills near Moscow factory was built mirrored glass. After the death of Peter I. Vorobyevsky plant was transferred to St. Petersburg, and eventually became the Imperial.

женский головной убор, вышивка бисером и жемчугом, 1700 год, Россия
Female headdress. Bead work and pearls. 1700, Russia
During the XVIII-XIX centuries. in Russia there was a small state-owned and private factories for the manufacture of various products made ​​of glass, but no evidence of mass-produced beads do not.
For several centuries, imported glass beads from Venice to Russia and Germany. In the XV century. imported glass beads used on a par with Russian needlewomen precious stones and pearls.
With the increase in bead crafts sharply increased demand for beads and bugles of different varieties and colors. If in 1748 only through the port of St. Petersburg had been imported to Russia from abroad, 472 hundredweight of beads and bugles two hundredweight, in 1752 was brought in 2126 pounds of beads and 29 pounds of glass beads.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov November (19 1711 – April 15 1765) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.
In 1752, Mikhail Lomonosov, who conducted experiments on creation of stained glass, obtained from the Senate resolution on the construction of Ust-Ruditskoy factories under Oranienbaum for "doing he invented multi-colored glass beads and of them, pronizok and beads and all sorts of other fancy things and dress, which still today in Russia do not, but brought in from overseas at the cost of a great amount to many thousands. " One of the main buildings was the laboratory in which there were nine furnaces. In 1754, the Ust-Ruditskaya factory issued its first product: beads and glass beads, faceted stones and brooches, muffled by the stained glass for mosaics, etc.Beads manufactured at this factory was finished steklyarusny study the Chinese Palace in Oranienbaum. In 1765, after the death of Lomonosov factory was closed, lasted only 10 years old.In his poem "Letter to the benefits of glass," Lomonosov wrote:
So in the beads Glass pearls of similarity,
Loved all around the circle goes.
They painted people in the steppes of midnight,
They painted Moor on the southern shores of ...

In the late XVIII - early XX century., At the height of beaded handicrafts in many countries and in Russia, along with imported used beads, produced in small artisans workshops in Kiev, Moscow, Kazan and other provinces to meet the needs of local jewelers, craftsmen and craftswomen.

Until the later Roman times, even in the era of the Merovingian (the first royal dynasty in the Frankish state (V-VIII cc.) Received its name by the name of the legendary founder of the dynasty єtoy - Meroveya), Egyptian beads are a hot commodity, which spread from Egypt via Massilia (today Marseille) and Olbia (near the mouth of the Bug), and later in Aquileia, the most distant countries of Europe. Since beads became one of the first universal language and idioms of communication - the language of Beauty! Do not believe it when you say it integrates only the Internet! The beauty of doing it faster and more reliable, and does not fail!  To the north were brought beads and pendants made of amber of all colors - yellow, orange, brown, collected on the shores of the Baltic Sea. From what was then Russia, the countries of India, Mesopotamia - pearls and jewelry from him. Nice to know that since beads are not aged! At all times, from ancient Egypt to our days, people liked to decorate with beads household items (those simple things that surround us every day). On the streets of Cairo and then, and now you can meet the donkeys and camels, which harnesses vynizana beads, and bazaars and shops are still full of all kinds of beaded crafts in a beautiful combination of blue, white, yellow, black and green tones. And what can we say about the clothes?! Since time immemorial, beads on a par with the pearl was used for the manufacture of jewelry and art in a variety of needlework - embroidery, weaving, inlay. Mass production of glass in Europe, too, originates from this parish beads from Egypt! Magical effects that made these ornaments, inspired both individual artists and entire nations to create a beautiful and creativity. So, over time, the production of beads are available in many countries of Western Europe and the Orient.
Even if most of these countries today many do not know, something about the era of the Roman Empire, was heard by all. Famous glass factories of Alexandria were famous in their time of all the known world. Ancient masters, as the Egyptians had reached a very high degree of perfection of workmanship colorful beads - these beads have been complicated intricate white patterns on the colored background. It was later imitated Alexandria beads Venetian masters, where this type of beads was known as «Millefiori». Next to the beauty of workmanship has always been dressing beads beads, which is then mixed together with the large beads in different fancy necklaces, podnizkah, earrings, then decorated with different artistic self-handiwork. Venetian masters, of course, well done. But think, my dear, on this fact: the fact that the paint beads or beads 100 complex patterns, a person of that time took exactly five times more time and effort that he could spend a long, full of inspiration, a trip to space Beaded Wonders! In less than fifty times the energy of magic gnomes spend on something to materialize these beads are already ready! In five hundred times faster than emerging friendship with the fairies! ..
With the spread of classical Greco-Roman culture in Europe, glass factories there, even in the so-called barbarous countries: in Gaul (now France) and Germany, where, along with the production of glassware began dressing of fine glass jewelry, beads and imitation (fake) gems . I must say that it was very far from perfect  products and bore the imprint of primitive, "barbaric" work. And when should they be improved if all thoughts were just wars, capture or retain power? Was widespread imitation gemstones made of glass, but by the middle of the Middle Ages the rich and judges no longer wear fake jewelry. Then the stained glass was used for other purposes: the color mosaic cubes for the magnificent Byzantine, Ravenna mosaics and rannevenetsianskih for Byzantine and Romanesque enamels. European museums hold some very early examples of beads and the beginning of the end HІI thirteenth centuries, where along with this pearl and coral embroidery was used for quite small polished beads. Especially often it can often be seen in church vestments and relics. So, over the centuries, simple stones and animal bones, and then the big rough beads of opaque glass (thanks to the invisible work of dwarfs and tips!) Gradually transformed into a beautiful and neat beads of glass, porcelain, metal, and a variety of natural materials. Oh, how much effort spent magical creatures, trying to instill in people a sense of beauty and excellence! Ideas beaded wonders kept (and kept to this day!) In the Land of Oz bead, but for some reason people do not want to take them, but maybe just not ready yet - in fact get into this country is so simple ... We believe in gnomes and people do not lose hope!

From Byzantium - VENICE  Different countries take different beads. As the skill of manufacturing beads required great skill and subtlety, it does not root in countries that are better able to appreciate the heavy sharp sword and courage. Qualitative beautiful beads came there from somewhere else. Secrets of its production were not comprehended in Germany and Gaul, but in a more sensitive and artistic development of Byzantium. Heir to the eastern part of the Roman Empire absorbed and re-think and achieve mastery of the Mediterranean peoples, the ancient wisdom of the East, had a cultural and spiritual influence on the development of European civilization, and many neighboring nations.It is believed that in Byzantium the recipe came from the production of beads Greeks, and from there - still young Venice. Venice - the birthplace of many great painters and sculptors, and connoisseurs of beauty - have embraced the new art is very warm and even enthusiastically! Here, art glass settled for centuries, not knowing the rivals! Venetian glass beads, these «piccoli lavori di vetro», overran him all over the world, bringing immense wealth of the Venetian republic.In the 1000th year in Venice is housed developed glass factories. Mosaics of the Cathedral of St. Mark, who began to construct around this time, indicate the existence of very advanced glass case. Survived the decree of 1221 the highest governing body of Venice - the Council - the deferral of the glass workshops of the city of Venice to the nearby island of Murano. This measure was caused by reasons of fire safety, only one biserschikam allowed to stay in as long as most of Venice, but with some caution: they had to settle for a certain distance from each other.Corporation Glazier divided by function. Masters «Yerixelli» made into beads, beads and other small things: glass buttons or uppercase letters, which were appointed by the coloring.By the way, fake jewels, so common in Germany, many decrees of the Venetian government strictly pursued. In Venice, to appreciate a truly beautiful! Later master biserschiki specializing on manufacture of a variety of beads. In the workshops of Murano has developed over time, its own classification of these varieties. Above it was mentioned about the famous «Millefiori» - Alexandria colorful beads imitation; still on the list were listed bead production: «Arte del margaritaio» - massive thick beads and beads; «Lavori minuti a ferraza» - small beads: «Lavori grossi a spiedo» - large beads; «Arte del perlaio» - hollow beads and seed beads, and much more.Oh, these people - they all need to call, to divide and classify the types! Much more beautiful beads were fabulous names, because they were uttered no words, and images. If you speak any gnome, you do not hear sounds, but imagine a bright - that the beads had in mind your prompter!
Products Murano occupied a significant place in the trade of Venice, bringing huge profits. Unlike the dwarfs, the Venetians traded in the east for their beads spices, fabrics, and gold. Even in the inaccessible depths of the African deserts penetrated Venetian glass beads, it was used by the natives as coins. Since when was greed take precedence over the desire for beauty, began to fall a great skill! We, of fairy-tale world, it was a good showing!Jealously guarded secrets of Venice glass production. Since 1275 under threat of confiscation (seizure of property!) Banned the export of unfinished glass from Venice, processing, raw materials that make up the glass, and even broken glass dishes, not to give the possibility to analyze its composition. The names of skilled craftsmen, glaziers become famous and glorious and even go to our days. In the first half of the XIII century, famous for their masters and Nicolas Mateo - great friends of one of my friends great-great-gnome. In 1490, the Senate puts the glass production under special protection of the Council of Ten. Every effort is made to keep the masters in Venice, to prevent their departure to foreign lands. They are given privilege quite exceptional in the strictly aristocratic Venice in 1376, the Senate issued a decree that allowed Patricia to marry the daughter of a glazier, and his sons recognized the noble patricians.Of course, the Venetians took care of his income, but the fairies are very distressed that time, seeing such an attitude that comes from human greed. After all, hiding the secrets of glass and beads from other countries, the Venetians thus closed the bead work in the cage of their republic, leaving its development, the tide of new creative energy! In many respects greed has led to decline of Venice as lawgiver of art, including bead-.
Enormous benefits that received by Venice glass industry have been a subject of envy of neighboring states, and around all sorts of intrigue Murano trailed foreign agents to bribe glaziers, to spy on their work and to study the raw material. When Louis XIV was seduced several masters in France, the Venetian ambassador in Paris, received from his spy master list of these and sent it to the Senate. Senate action masters equated to treason and issued an edict: "If a craftsman or an artist will bring their art to a foreign country to the disadvantage of the Republic - he sent an order to return. If he does not obey - imprison his family and friends. If not then follow the return - send murderers put to death, and only his family receive freedom, when it is no longer among the living. "After this, the fairies and gnomes finally break it off with a Venetian citizen.
The son of a famous master Nicolo beaded, daring explorer Marco Polo, I realized what a tremendous success can be glass beads and seed beads to barter with the natives of tropical countries. He vividly described it in his stories. Of course, the natives of color sparkling beads and beads seemed a miracle!
The discovery of America greatly facilitated the flourishing of beaded case, because the natives of America were the most ardent fans and beaded necklaces. Never experienced such a production does not rise, as at the end of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. It should not, of course, to think that only the natives were fans of the Venetian biserschikov. The huge sales were in Europe. At fairs and trade ranks of all European states Venetian beads held pride of place and quickly bought up. Took place even specially-beaded Fair. There is documentary evidence that the city of Nuremberg was a constant stock of Venetian glass beads, and, of course, an example of the city was not isolated.Needless to say, as was widely developed a taste for all kinds of artistic products of beads in Italy. In Art and Industry Museum in Hamburg remains a fragment of this Italian Renaissance costume: small black beads embroidered beautiful ornament of the birds and animals that are crammed into curls fantastic plants, with fancy leaves and flowers. Paintings by Italian artists of the day brought us the diversity of beaded jewelry ladies costume: beaded necklace, beaded dress in her hair, all kinds of suspension and pronizki, which is decorated and sometimes the background pattern.Artistic taste for beaded jewelry kept for very long, even when the star of Venice has become pale. He got into all sectors of society, it can be seen as a traditional dress, suit, provinces, and the attire of the court nobles. Some beaded dresses were confined even to certain cases. Keisler traveler who visited Italy in the first half of the eighteenth century, said that the Genoese were the girls at the funeral celebration of hats, from the bottom of the black polished beads of different sorts and shapes. The classification of these varieties, installed in the workshops of Murano, is not strictly observed, and in the products, especially necklaces and beads, beads and beads were mixed continuously even with these gems.If you are interested, looked like a Venetian bead shop, you can look at the case in the Copenhagen art gallery. There, in the paintings of Van Loo, shows a group of craftsmen at work biserschikov: some are busy cutting glass tubes, from which the beads, and other very common way then, polished beads in the crucible.You can tell that by the end of the seventeenth century Venetian glass beads reigns supreme. All beaded products are stored in European museums since the Renaissance, made from the beads, or at least, from the Italian. Some competition from other Italian cities is beginning to emerge at the end of the seventeenth century. Then, gradually, and on the other side of the Alps there are out there, here Studios, based in Venice who had fled from the masters, or their disciples, or even people, through bribery and espionage took over trade secrets.Foreseeing this, the gnomes and took care of their ancient secrets in the depths of fairy mountains! We, the fairies are not able to conceal and hide, we do not understand why I asked about people and magic beads alone my friend gnome. He sighed and said: "There is no sadder story in the world than a tale of human greed. Sick of the disease even manage to draw the most beautiful thing to the detriment of both themselves and others. "
In 1649 a Giovanni Menard began to bead work in the city Ampezzo, he settled in Florence in 1754 by Antonio Vistozi. Emperor Leopold I in Vienna called the master Pietro de Vetore. We already know that in Venice acted draconian laws against eviction masters, to whatever shop glass case they belong to, and the republic is not stopped in front of such a measure, the premise behind fleeing assassins. And Vetore and Vistozi - both graduated from the impact of the mysterious life hands out towards the deserted their fatherland. But once the competition began inexorably evolved and the demand for Venetian glass beads began to gradually decline: although, in the middle of production, made various attempts to outdo its competitors. Thus, in late eighteenth-century brothers and Bertolini Vittore Mestre perfected a new style of decorating glass mass metal proderzhkami. In the same era shops of Murano made a lot of fake pearls on the French model, the so-called «Perle false» or «Perle da Murano» - glass beads, which are covered with mother of pearl, extracted from fish scales, perched. This invention has been particularly detrimental to the beads: it is completely swallowed a bead production, which dropped lower and lower, both qualitatively and quantitatively. As I said, all the same gnome-familiar: "The stones begin to forge when all else has long been a fake!".
A characteristic feature of the Venetian government relations of the eighteenth century and the master glass makers noted in his memorial Casanova, he says that it was unsafe to stay the night at Murano. Robbery and even murder, perpetrated by the inhabitants of this colony glaziers, always remained unpunished because the government feared to irritate him the right shop.That's such a sad story happened to Venice - from the most loyal and sincere lovers of beads - to ordinary cormorants and even the murderers!Did you know that the fairy world is just greed benign disease, such as your cold: it is easy to cure, really giving it to anyone! And those who stand to gain from a profit of art, always becomes merely a craftsman? and the height of inspiration, sooner or later becomes available to him ...The real art in itself open? and his only motivation - to bring light into the world of beauty, to share joy! So someone who knows a fairy!
Secrecy in the production of beaded continued until 1704, when it was finally published a book of samples, one copy is kept in the British Museum. Many dwarfs sighed with relief. Meanwhile, the demand for Venetian glass beads fall. The Venetians took the path of improving the quality of their products. Sometimes, due to bouts of European fashion bead work (for example, in the XIX century.) Venetian production again rose to great heights, but the former exclusive world domination, it does not returned.There were more and more shops. And while the Venetian glass beads are still considered the best, but, for example, Danish carried out so thoroughly and so well that virtually no different from Venice. Place in the sun quickly won the Dutch and French seed beads.But the most dangerous rival of Venice grew up in Germany.....

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